Author Topic: Glucose Metabolism and Regulation: Beyond Insulin and Glucagon  (Read 6 times)


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Glucose Metabolism and Regulation: Beyond Insulin and Glucagon
« on: November 03, 2020, 09:59:13 pm »
...The recent discovery of additional hormones with glucoregulatory actions has expanded our understanding of how a variety of different hormones contribute to glucose homeostasis. In the 1950s, glucagon was characterized as a major stimulus of hepatic glucose production. This discovery led to a better understanding of the interplay between insulin and glucagon, thus leading to a bi-hormonal definition of diabetes. Subsequently, the discovery of a second β-cell hormone, amylin, was first reported in 1987. Amylin was determined to have a role that complemented that of insulin, and, like insulin, was found to be deficient in people with diabetes. This more recent development led to a view of glucose homeostasis involving multiple pancreatic hormones.8

In the mid 1970s, several gut hormones were identified. One of these, an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was recognized as another important contributor to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis.9,10 Based on current understanding, glucose homeostasis is governed by the interplay of insulin, glucagon, amylin, and incretin hormones.

This enhanced understanding of glucose homeostasis will be central to the design of new pharmacological agents to promote better clinical outcomes and quality of life for people with diabetes. This review will focus on the more recently discovered hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and is not intended to be a comprehensive review of diabetes therapies. ... Source:

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